Paul Fawkesley

GPG For Humans, Part 2: Public Key Crypto Primer

Public-key or “asymmetric” crypto is a cunning piece of maths (which I happily don’t understand) that’s at the heart of GPG. The incredible thing it allows is for us to communicate securely (signing and encryption) without having agreed a secret in advance. This turns out to be a big deal.

In GPG you create a *pair* of keys which are fundamentally related. One half is your *secret* or *private* key, which you keep strictly to yourself. The other half is your *public* key which you tell everyone about, if you so wish.

This brings us back to part 1 on signing and encryption. If I know your *public* key, I can use it to encrypt a message that only your *secret* key can unlock. Even I can’t unlock it once I’ve encrypted it.

Furthermore, you can use your secret key to create a signature. If I know your public key then I can verify that the signature came from your secret key by using your public key.

Clearly, it’s very important to properly verify that a public key belongs to who you think it does. There is absolutely nothing to stop someone from creating a keypair using someone else’s email address and pretend it really belongs to that person. In fact, this isn’t theoretical - it has actually happened to developers. We’ll go into key verification in more detail later - for now, suffice to say that public keys have *fingerprints* which must be carefully verified, preferably in person.

So what’s a fingerprint?

Key IDs & Fingerprints

Unfortunately GPG has three (at least?) ways of identifying a key. Here are the three ways for my current public key:

  1. Short ID, for example AD1B5517
  2. Long ID, for example 0x309F635DAD1B5517
  3. Fingerprint, for example A999 B749 8D1A 8DC4 73E5 3C92 309F 635D AD1B 5517

To cut a long story short, don’t ever use short ids - they are not secure. But do be aware of them as you are likely to encounter them - alas, not everyone is using long ids yet :(

The fingerprint is what you use to compare and verify a key. Supposing you knew me well enough to identify me in person. It would be fairly easy to acquire and verify my public key, perhaps like this:

  1. You search a keyserver for my email address, and it shows you a key with id 0x309F635DAD1B5517
  2. You download key 0x309F635DAD1B5517 and examine its fingerprint
  3. You meet me (in person) and ask me to read my key’s fingerprint.
  4. You verify every single digit of the fingerprint.
  5. You *sign* my key to say that you’ve verified it belongs to me.

In this ideal scenario, you’d have a pretty good idea that I owned the public key you’d just downloaded. Now you could send me an encrypted email or verify a message or file that I’ve signed.


Keyservers are a way of sharing public keys and knowledge of who has verified which keys. We’ll cover these more later, but for now a word of warning: you cannot delete keys from a keyserver, so they will hang around forever. It’s possible to expire and revoke them, but they’ll still be present in search results. I would advise that you don’t send any keys to a keyserver just yet.


Enough theory - let’s get stuck in! There are loads of resources online to help. Don’t worry about security at this point - we’ll be doing secure key generation step-by-step later on.

  1. Configure gnupg.conf to show long ids and fingerprints (see
  2. Generate an RSA key pair with 4096 bits and an expiry of one week.
  3. Have a play with `gpg --list-keys` and `gpg --edit-key <long id>`
  4. Try and find & download my key from a keyserver using (hint: `--search-keys` and `--recv-keys`)

Any thoughts, get in touch.

Thoughts? Get in touch